Aim. The aim of this study is to present a case of Riga-Fede disease (RFD). RFD is a benign and uncommon mucosal disorder, characterized by an ulceration of the tongue, often caused by repetitive traumatic injuries due to backward and forward movements of the tongue over the mandibular anterior incisors. RFD is most commonly associated with the eruption of primary lower incisor in older infants or natal-neonatal teeth in newborns.
Methods. A 2-month-old female infant was referred to our Paediatric Dentistry Unit for ulceration (13 mm diameter) on the ventral surface of the tongue and neonatal teeth. The extraction of neonatal teeth was selected as treatment of choice, over more conservative treatments, for the rapid resolution of the lesion and for the limited risk of inadequate nutrients intake. The extracted teeth underwent a macroscopic/ microscopic examination. The complete healing of the lesion took 4 weeks; subsequently, the infant, revised at the 1-year follow-up visit.
Conclusion. Early detection of RFD is recommended because such lesions properly may induce deformity or mutilation of tongue, dehydration, inadequate nutrients intake by the infant and growth retardation.