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Oral Implantology

NEW INSIGHTS IN OROFACIAL CLEFT: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC STUDIES ON ITALIAN SAMPLES

Original research, 11 - 19
doi: 10.11138/orl/2017.10.1.011
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Abstract
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Cleft of the lip and/or palate (CL±P) is the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly affecting around 1 in 700 live births worldwide.
Clefts of the human face can be classified anatomically as cleft lip only (CL), cleft palate only (CP), cleft lip and palate (CLP) or a combined group of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P), based on differences in embryologic development. CL±P has a genetic base and several linkage and association analyses have been performed in order to obtain important information about the role of candidate genes in its onset; not less important are gene-environment interactions that play an increasing role in its aetiology. In CL±P, several loci have been seen associated with the malformation, and, in some cases, a specific gene mapping in a locus has also been identified as susceptibility factor. In CP, one gene has been found, but many more are probably involved. In this short review the genetic studies carried out on CL±P, and the interaction with environmental factors (alcohol, smoking, drugs) are discussed.

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