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Oral Implantology

TRADITIONAL ELASTIC LIGATURES VERSUS SLIDE LIGATION SYSTEM.
A MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION

Original Article, 15 - 24
doi: 10.11138/orl/2013.6.1.015
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Abstract
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Objective. Elastomeric materials play an important role in the orthodontic practice, including the retraction force to move teeth into extraction sites, closing diastemas, selective shifting of the midline and generalized space closure.
Frictional resistance and ligating strength of archwire-bracket-ligature complex occurs during utilization of elastomeric and metallic ligatures when orthodontic forces are applicated. The aim of this study was to analyze elastic deformation of three types of elastomeric ligatures, after clinical use.
Material and Methods. Elastomeric ligatures: ring-shape, transparent, latex ligatures (Leone® S.p.A.), ring-shape, grey, polyurethane ligatures (Micerium® S.p.A.) and grey, polyurethane, Slide low-friction ligatures (Leone® S.p.A.). A total of 9 orthodontic patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy were selected. Three specimens were applied, one for each types of ligature, inside the oral cavity of each subject. Samples were kept in the oral cavity for 28 days, ligating 0.16 X 0.22 inches stainless steel archwires to stainless steel premolars brackets (Leone® S.p.A., Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy) for
Bidimensional technique. After the pre-established time, the systems of ligature were removed and washed. Control group consisted of 9 unused specimens of each ligation type. Each elastomeric ligature was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine variations in size. The archwire-bracket-ligature complex was also analyzed.
Results. Transparent O-ring ligatures showed significant volumetric and structural changes. The external rounded shape was rather maintained, while the internal shape tended to appear square. Both external and internal diameter significantly increased (p<0.005 and p<0.0001 respectively) while the thickness decreased ( p<0,005) when analyzed with t-test. Polyurethane ring-shape ligatures retained the initial ring design. Both external and internal diameter increased (p<0.0001), while the thickness remained almost unchanged. The internal border was more squared, and showed jagged edges with continuous and irregular extroversions. Grey, polyurethane Slide low-friction ligatures showed a reduced dimensional change. There was a slight increase in two dimensions, length and width, (14-16%) (p<0.05 and p<0.001) while there was a not significant decrease in thickness (10%).
Conclusion. From SEM analysis of ligature morphology it emerges that latex and polyurethane O-ring ligatures endure significant volumetric and structural changes, after clinical use, index of a greater degree of friction and early loss in functionality. Grey, polyurethane Slide low-friction ligatures presented limited variation in size after clinical use.

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