PROGNOSIS OF SHORT IMPLANTS IN ORAL REHABILITATION: WHERE DO WE STAND TODAY?
Review, 60 - 73Tag this article
Objective. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the long-term prognosis of short-length implants (≤ 6 mm) placed in the posterior maxilla and to review their clinical, radiographic and patient-reported outcomes based on prospective randomized controlled trials. Materials and methods. An electronic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was conducted to identify randomized clinical trials comparing short implants (≤ 6 mm) to longer implants (≥ 6 mm) placed in the posterior maxilla with or without sinus elevation procedures. The studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria were eliminated. Patient, implant and prosthesis information were filled/gathered in tables and a systematic review was performed on the clinical, radiographic and patient reported outcomes. Results. Eight RCTs were selected for the study and a total of 409 short implants placed in 260 patients and 422 longer (≥ 6 mm) implants in 252 patients were analyzed. Out of all these included implants, 20 short and 8 long were lost after 3 to 5-year follow-up. Both groups showed high survival rates ranging between 86.7% and 100% for group short and between 95.6% and 100% for group long. Biological complications mainly occurred in group long where augmentation procedures were performed. The short implant group showed more favorable outcomes in terms of PROM levels, post-operative morbidity as well as surgical time and cost. Conclusion. The findings of the present systematic review suggest that short implants may be considered a promising option/ alternative for posterior maxilla rehabilitation especially in elderly or medically compromised patients where augmentation procedures should be avoided or at least simplified.
KEY WORDS: short dental implants, survival rate, C/I ratio, marginal bone loss, complications.